Anicient Bengal

Kingdom of Bengal

The Indo Aryan -speaking tribe  Bangla ( Bang/Banga- anicient  )that settled in Ganga River Delta around the year 1000 BC.

Bangladesh Is a One of the ancient nation state in indian Subcontinent . Bangladesh is  is  cultural entity of Ethnic Language , A Indo Aryan descendant nation .

This country’s borders coincide with the major portion of the ancient and historic region of Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, where civilization dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic.

The word was used by the Indic people of the Vedic period in Ganges Delta  as an ethnic label for themselves, as well as to refer to the noble class and geographic location known as Āryāvarta where Indo-Aryan culture was based .

The  name is derived from Venga (Bôngo), which came from the Austric  word “Bonga” meaning the Sun. According to the Mahabharata,  a historic noble of the region . The Arabic accounts refer that “Bong”, a son of Hind (son of Hām who was a son of Prophet Noah/Nooh) colonised the area for the first time.

The earliest reference to . The Wari-Bateshwar region (Bengali: উয়ারী-বটেশ্বরUari-Bôṭeshshor) in Narsingdi, Bangladesh is the site of an ancient fort city dating back to 450 BC[1]  The 2500-year-old ruins being unearthed near the old course of the Brahmaputra River are a major archaeological discovery in south Asia. It challenges the earlier notions of early urban civilisation in Bengal.

“Vangala” (Bôngal) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of RashtrakutaGovinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala

Remnants of civilization in the greater Bengal region date back three millennia. The civilization that flourished in this region before the Aryan conquest was the Alpine civilization. The Alpines (Eastern Bracycephalic) from Taklamakan Desert in Central Asia settled in
eastern India (Bengal, Orissa and the plains of Assam) and formed the main elements of today’s Bengali people. The Alpines were
divided into various indigenous tribes: Vanga (south Bengal), Pundra (north Bengal), and Rarh/Suhma (West Bengal) according to
their respective Totems. According to Mahavamsa, Vijaya Singha, a Vanga prince, conquered Lanka (modern day Sri Lanka) in
544 BC and gave the name Sinhala to the country. In 326 BCE, with the invasion of Alexander the Great the region again comes  into prominence. The Greek and Latin historians suggested that Alexander the Great withdrew from India anticipating the valiant  counter attack of the mighty Gangaridai and Prasioi empires which were located in the Bengal region. The pre-Gupta period of  bengal is shrouded with obscurity. Before the conquest of Samudragupta Bengal was divided into two kingdoms Pushkarana and

The Vanga Kingdom was the first powerful seafaring nation of South Asia, especially Bengal. They had overseas trade relations with Java, Sumatra and Siam (modern-day Thailand). According to Mahavamsa, the Vanga prince Vijaya Simha conquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) in 544 BC and gave the name “Sinhala” to the country. Bengali people migrated to the Malay Archipelago and Siam (in modern Thailand), establishing their own colonies there.

Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Vanga(bôngo),
which came from the Austric word “Bonga” meaning the Sun-god. According to Mahabharata, Purana, Harivamsha Vanga was one
of the adopted sons of king Vali who founded the Vanga kingdom. The Muslim Accounts refer that “Bong”, a son of Hind (son of
Hām who was a son of Noah) colonized the area for the first time. The earliest reference to “Vangala”(bôngal) has been traced in
the Nesari plates (805 AD) of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. Shams-ud-din Ilyas
Shah took the title “Shah-e-Bangalah” and united the whole region under one nationality for the first time. The Proto-Australoids
were the earliest inhabitants of Bengal. Dravidians migrated to Bengal from Southern India, while Tibeto-Burman peoples migrated
from the Himalayas, followed by the Indo-Aryans from north-western India. The ancestors of modern Bengali people were a blend
of these peoples. Pathans, Iranians, Arabs and Turks also migrated to the region in the late Middle Ages while spreading Islam.

Samatata. Chandragupta II had to defeat a confederacy of Vanga kings. Bengal was a part of the Gupta Empire. However, the
Mrigashikhaban Stupa of Varendra is a strong proof that the Guptas themselves had originated from Bengal. This implies that the
Guptas were Bengali and the Gupta empire was in fact a Bengali empire. Even today the origin of the Guptas is still hotly debated.
By the sixth century, the Gupta Empire ruling over the northern Indian subcontinent was largely broken up. The first independent
Buddhist king of Bengal, Gopala I came to power in 750 in Gaur by democratic election. Gopala founded the Buddhist Pala
dynasty which lasted for four centuries (750-1120 AD), ushering in a period of relative stability and prosperity. The Palas were
followed by the Sena dynasty who brought the East and West Bengal under one ruler only during the twelfth century. The Sena
dynasty brought a revival of Hinduism and cultivated Sanskrit literature made its first appearance in Bengal during the twelfth century
AD when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later occasional Muslim invaders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques,
madrassas and Sufi Khanqahs. Beginning in 1202 a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin
Bakhtiar Khilji, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra and the Brahmaputra River. The defeated Laksmanasena
and his two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapura (south of Dhaka), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late
thirteenth century. The period after Bakhtiar Khilji’s death in 1206 devolved into infighting among the Khiljis – representative of a
pattern of succession struggles and intra-empire intrigues during later Turkish regimes. Ilyas Shah founded an independent dynasty
that lasted from 1342-1487 which successfully repulsed attempts by Delhi to reign them in. The Habshi rule gave way to the
Hussain Shahi dynasty that ruled from 1494-1538. Alauddin Hussain Shah, considered as the greatest of all the sultans of Bengal
for the cultural renaissance during his reign, conquered Kamarupa, Kamata, Jajnagar, Orissa and extended the sultanate all the way
to the port of Chittagong, which witnessed the arrival of the first Portuguese merchants. The last Sultan of the dynasty, who
continued to rule from Gaur, had to contend with rising Afghan activity on his northwestern border. Eventually, the Afghans broke
through and sacked the capital in 1538 where they remained for several decades until the arrival of the Mughals. Portuguese traders
and missionaries were the first Europeans to reach Bengal in the latter part of the fifteenth century. They were followed by
representatives of the Dutch, the French, and the British East India Company. During Aurangzeb’s reign, the local Nawab sold three
villages, including one then known as Calcutta, to the British. The British East India Company gained official control of Bengal
following the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Scandals and the bloody rebellion known as the Sepoy Mutiny prompted the British
government to intervene in the affairs of the East India Company. In 1858, authority in India was transferred from the


 Prehistoric :

The Neolithic Era and the transition to Civilization

Main article: Neolithic

Map of the world showing approximate centres of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory:- Wikipedia
The process of sedentarization is first thought to have occurred around 12,000 BCE in the Levant region of southwest Asia though other regions around the world soon followed. The emergence of civilization is generally associated with the Neolithic, or Agricultural Revolution, which occurred in various locations between 8,000 and 5,000 BCE, specifically in southwestern/southern Asia, northern/central Africa and Central America.

New study refutes claims of early humans in India prior to Mount Toba eruption And Bangladesh in this early position Phys.org 
Stone Age :

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state.Remnants of Copper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,000 years.The original settlers spoke non-Aryan languages— they may have spoken Austric or Austro-Asiatic languages. At a subsequent age, peoples speaking languages from two other language families— Dravidian and Tibeto-Burman—seem to have settled in Bengal. Archaeological discoveries during the 1960s furnished evidence of a degree of civilisation in certain parts of Bengal as far back as the first millennium BC.

 

 Early human migrations from c. 4200–3000 BCE brought archaic proto-indo-European into the lower Danube valley,Anatolia,and the Altai region. Pre-Celtic and pre-Italic probably spread into Europe after new migrations into the Danube Valley

Human Migration early Age
while pre-Germanic and pre-Balto-Slavic developed east of the Carpathian mountains, at present-day Ukraine, growing into the Andronovo culture (c. 1800–800 BCE).

Indo-Aryans moved into the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (c. 2300–1700 BCE) and spread to the Levant (Mitanni), northern India (Vedic people, c. 1500 BCE), and China (Wusun )

1500 BC–1000 BC:  The Nordic Bronze Age develops pre-Proto-Germanic, and the (pre). Redaction of the Rigveda and rise of the Vedic civilization in the Punjab. The Mycenaean civilization gives way to the Greek Dark Ages.

The most widely spoken Indo-European descendent  native speakers are Spanish, English,  Bengali, Russian, PersianHindi and Urdu , Portuguese, , each with over 100 million speakers. Today, 46% of the human population speaks an Indo-European language natively, by far the highest of any language family.


References :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_prehistory

https://phys.org/news/2013-06-refutes-early-humans-india-prior.html

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